Glossary of Developmental Disability Terms
Terms Defined to Help You Find Answers
This resource has been compiled by the staff of Developmental Disabilities Resource Center. It is dedicated to Mike Boorman, parent and former Board Director. With thanks for his many contributions to DDRC and especially for his helpful reminders regarding the use of clear language. If you have wondered what a term means, or what an acronym is, this glossary can help you find the answers.
American Association on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities. The nation’s oldest and most respected professional association run by and for professionals who support people with intellectual and developmental disabilities. www.aaidd.org
Applied Behavior Analysis. A discipline devoted to the understanding and improvement of human behavior through skill acquisition and the reduction of problematic behavior in a measurable and accountable manner. Often used interchangeably with behavior modification.
Observing behavior (B) and its functional relationship to antecedents (A) and consequences (C).
Adaptive Behavior Scale. The ABS is one of the best-researched and tested psychological measurement tools for evaluating adaptive behavior (daily functioning).
Affordable Care Act. Federal statute also known as Obamacare.
Accountable Care Collaborative. A Colorado Medicaid program to improve clients’ health and reduce costs. ACCs serve as a medical home for clients, enhanced medical management, care coordination and integrated disease management.
Accountable Care Organizations. Providers that voluntarily meet quality outcome-based thresholds.
Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990. This comprehensive federal civil rights law makes it unlawful to discriminate in private sector employment against a qualified individual with a disability. The ADA also outlaws discrimination against individuals with disabilities in state and local government services, employment, public accommodations, transportation, and telecommunication.
Attention Deficit Disorder. A disorder that shows up in the areas of inattention and impulsiveness. It is evidenced by having difficulty organizing and completing tasks correctly, frequent shifting from one activity to another, failure to follow rules. ADD without hyperactivity refers to the disorder without a high degree of atypical motor activity.
Age Discrimination and Enforcement Act
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. This is similar to ADD but includes gross motor over activity, such as excessive running, talking, or manipulation of objects and excessive fidgeting and restlessness.
Activities of Daily Living.
Aging Disability Resource Center.
Automated External Defibrillator is a device that can be used instead of CPR to revive a person after cardiac arrest.
Aid to Families with Dependent Children. A financial assistance program for single-parent families. Modified in the welfare reforms of 1997.
Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality.
Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome.
Automated Licensure Information System Online (through DORA).
Administrative Law Judge.
Aid to Needy and Disabled.
Adult Protection Services. The Adult Protection Services unit provides assistance for adults who are at risk of mistreatment or self-neglect.
Administration on Aging.
Adult Protective Services
Association for Persons in Supported Employment. APSE is a national membership organization committed to expanding and improving integrated employment opportunities and outcomes for persons with disabilities. www.apse.org
Adult Resources for Care and Help. Colorado’s ADRC. Regional access point to long term care services and support for adults age 60 and over, or age 18 and over living with a disability, and their caregivers.
Adult Residential Services. State funded residential facilities such as group homes and apartments.
American Sign Language. A formal method of communication used by people with hearing impairments. It is a system of articulated hand gestures and their placement relative to the upper body as well as facial expression, movements, postures and other non-manual signs that enhance and emphasize the meaning of signs.
Administrative Service Organization. An non-risk bearing entity that is hired to perform fiscal, legal, and management duties.
Asymmetrical Tonic Neck Reflex. With the head turned to the side, the arm on the face side is extended while the arm on the skull side is flexed.
Adults Without Dependent Children.
Easy to approach, enter, operate, participate in or use safely, independently and with dignity by a person with a disability.
Modification of buildings, curbs, and other physical structures to allow easy movement and admittance by a person with a disability. The Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 mandates accessibility to all public and private facilities. Modifications might include ramps, use of Braille and sound adaptations.
Measures to assure that public funds are used to achieve the desired outcomes in a cost-effective manner.
Core indicators that summarize the overall picture of the health of a system as compared to other states or other CCBs.
Self-determination mechanisms, satisfaction surveys, complaint and dispute processes.
A disturbance of acid-base balance in the body.
A word formed from the initial letter or letters of each of the successive parts or major parts of a compound term. Acronyms are used for naming syndromes or other conditions and also used as abbreviated names of organizations (for example DDRC), programs, services and tests.
Adaptive behavior means that the person has overall adaptive behavior which is significantly limited in two or more skill areas (communication, self-care, home living, social skills, community use, self-direction, health and safety, functional academics, leisure, and work), as measured by an instrument which is standardized, appropriate to the person’s living environment, and administered and clinically determined by a qualified professional. CDHS/DDD Reg. 126.96.36.199
The way in which an individual responds to what is happening in the environment. How well the individual responds determines whether or not a task has been learned.
Adaptive Skills (Functional Skills)
Those skills used in daily living such as dressing and eating.
Meaning to go before a judge. This term is used to describe the fact that an individual has had a guardian appointed by the court. The person is no longer deemed competent to make informed decisions independently.
A gland near each kidney that produces hormones.
A document that tells your doctor what kind of care you would like to have in case you become unable to make your own decisions about medical treatment and the provision of health care, when and if you become incapacitated (for example, if you are in a coma).
Parents (or families), organizations or volunteers working on behalf of the rights and interests of others (such as people with disabilities). Parents are the best advocates for their children.
Emotional aspects of behavior.
Pertaining to the emotional aspects of behavior.
Alternative Care Facility
A residential facility which provides a package of personal care and homemaker services and protective oversight to eligible persons who meet applicable state and federal requirements, and which is state-certified.
An association of community centered boards and service agencies dedicated to improving programs for people with developmental disabilities. www.alliancecolorado.org
A degenerative disease of the brain, causing mental degeneration.
Rolling, crawling, walking, running.
Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) of 1990
This comprehensive federal civil rights law makes it unlawful to discriminate in private sector employment against a qualified individual with a disability. The ADA also outlaws discrimination against individuals with disabilities in state and local government services, employment, public accommodations, transportation, and telecommunication.
Amniotic fluid is drawn from the uterus during pregnancy to determine genetic or biochemical abnormalities in the fetus.
Pertaining to or caused by lack of oxygen in the blood.
A stimulus that occurs before a behavior. It makes a behavior more or less likely to occur again in the future.
System of scoring an infant's condition one minute and five minutes after birth.
Applied Behavior Analysis
A discipline devoted to the understanding and improvement of human behavior through skill acquisition and the reduction of problematic behavior in a measurable and accountable manner. Often used interchangeably with behavior modification.
Inability/difficulty in initiating or performing purposeful movements.
A therapeutic procedure which attempts to improve function through the application of aquatic therapeutic exercises.
An agency which collaboratively provides leadership in addressing the choices and needs of individuals with developmental disabilities and their families. Supporting persons with developmental disabilities living in Jefferson, Clear Creek and Gilpin counties. www.arcjc.org
The movement by the tongue, teeth and lips necessary to make a given sound.
Asperger Syndrome or Disorder
A developmental disorder characterized by a lack of social skills, impaired social relationships, poor coordination and poor concentration. Children with Asperger Disorder have average to above average intelligence and adequate language skills in the areas of vocabulary and grammar, but they may not understand the subtleties used in conversation such as irony and humor. It is believed that Asperger Disorder has a later onset than Autistic Disorder or at least is generally recognized later.
Taking into the airways of a fluid or foreign material.
Tools that are used to find an individual’s unique strengths and needs.
Devices used by people with disabilities to compensate for functional limitations and to enhance and increase learning, independence, mobility, communication, environmental control and choice.
Assistive Technology Services
These services include, but are not limited to the evaluation of a person’s need for assistive technology; helping to select and obtain appropriate devices; designing, fitting and customizing those devices; purchasing, repairing or replacing those devices; and training the individual to use the devices effectively. CDHS/DDD Regs. 1.2.40
A greater than normal mobility of the two upper cervical vertebrae at the top of the neck. Usually found in persons with Down Syndrome.
Pertaining to hearing.
The ability to recall what is heard.
Interpretation or the ability to give meaning to the information received through the ears. It is not simply hearing.
Augmentative or Alternative Communication
Non-verbal communication such as sign language, symbol systems (communication boards) or electronic voice output devices.
An individual designated by the person receiving services (or by the parent or guardian of the person receiving services) to assist the person receiving services in acquiring or using services or supports. The extent of the authorized representative’s involvement shall be determined upon designation. CRS 27-10.5-102
A developmental disability significantly affecting verbal and nonverbal communication and social relationships, generally evident before age three, which adversely affects a child's educational performance.
An ethical principle that proposes that all adults are competent until a court decides that incompetence exists. It embodies the concept of self-determination and supports the ability of a person to make decisions for him or herself consistent with the person’s beliefs and values. To act autonomously a person, therefore, must have an established set of values by which to measure his or her own interests.
Aversive Stimuli or Punishment
Any event immediately following a behavior which reduces the frequency or duration of that behavior.
A behavior which allows an individual to avoid an aversive or unpleasant situation or condition.
Board Certified Associate Behavior Analyst. A BCABS holds a bachelor’s degree and has passed a national certification exam, among other requirements.
Board Certified Behavior Analyst. A BCBA holds a master’s degree or Ph.D. and has passed a national certification exam, among other requirements.
Balancing Incentive Program.
A contraction of the term web log. A website, usually maintained by an individual with regular entries of commentary, description of events, or other materials.
Behavioral Health Organization is a provider network organization managing a group of mental health centers.
Board of Cooperative Educational Services.
Play and experimentation with sound by infants, which usually begins around three to four months of age.
Baseline, Base Rate, or Operant Level
The frequency or duration of a behavior before it is changed, modified or before a program is put into effect.
Any observable, measurable response or action.
Outdated term. Please see Applied Behavior Analysis.
A statement that depicts the specific behaviors desired after intervention occurs.
An ethical principle which promotes good and discourages harmful actions towards other human beings. It is historically associated with care giving and doing good for others.
Movement of both sides of the body simultaneously and parallel.
Both eyes used simultaneously.
Inflammation of the edges of the eyelids.
An inner awareness of body parts and how each relates to the other in movement.
Type of drug used in respiratory problems to open bronchial tubes to aid in breathing.
Chronological Age. The actual age of an individual derived from his or her date of birth.
Colorado Association of Community Centered Boards, now doing business as Alliance.
Colorado Alliance for the Mentally Ill.
Colorado Association of Private Residential Agencies.
Child Abuse Prevention & Treatment Act. Legislation that provides federal funding to states in support of prevention, assessment, investigation, prosecution and treatment activities.
Commission on Accreditation of Rehabilitation Facilities. A private, nonprofit organization that establishes standards of quality for services to people with disabilities. Adherence to these standards is then measured through an on-site review of an organization requesting accreditation. CARF is the nationally recognized accrediting authority whose sole concern is to promote quality services for people with disabilities. www.carf.org
Computed Axial Tomography. A radiological technique to produce a picture that shows the brain in cross section.
Colorado Benefits Management System
Colorado Children’s Healthcare Access Program
Community Centered Board. A nonprofit organization created by the Colorado legislature to determine eligibility of individuals with developmental disabilities within a specific geographical district and develop a plan for services and supports. CCBs are authorized to provide services directly or to purchase services from service provider organizations.
Colorado Coalition for Elder Right and Adult Protection
Community Contract and Management System. Computerized system used by CCBs and the state Division for Developmental Disabilities for tracking consumer information. CCMS furnishes demographic, program enrollment and billing information.
Coordinated Care Organizations.
Code of Colorado Regulations.
Consumer Directed Attendant Support Services provides in-home services from attendants selected, hired, trained and supervised by the person receiving the services.
Colorado Developmental Disabilities Planning Council. Developmental Disabilities Planning Councils exist in each state and U.S. territory, advising and assisting state agencies in planning for and providing services to persons with developmental disabilities.
Colorado Department of Education.
Colorado Department of Health Care Policy and Financing.
Colorado Department of Human Services.
Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment.
Council for Exceptional Children. A national, professional organization concerned with special education. www.cec.sped.org
Children’s Extensive Support waiver. Medicaid benefits and additional supports for children birth to 18 years old with extensive medical or behavioral needs requiring direct intervention at least every two hours during the day and every three hours during the night. Families must apply through their local CCB.
Conditions for Coverage (for Medicare Certification)
Children and Family Services.
Children’s Home and Community Based Services Waiver. Medicaid benefits and case management for children birth to 18 years old with significant functional long-term care needs. Must be deemed medically fragile. Waives SSI income limit for children who meet long-term care criteria.
Colorado Health Financing Authority.
Child Health Plan Plus.
Community Integrated Employment.
Combined Information Services. A collaborative effort of several CCBs to review and develop an information systems plan to track and access information for managed care.
Community Living Advisory Group
Culturally and Linguistically Appropriate Services.
Comprehensive Life Review.
Case Manager. (Same as Resource Coordinator or RC)
Case Management Agency.
Colorado Benefits Management System.
Chronically Mentally Ill.
CMS or CMMS
Center for Medicaid Services/Center for Medicare Medicaid Services. Federal unit which administers Medicare/Medicaid.
Cytomegalovirus. A virus which can result in damage to a fetus.
Children’s Medical Waiver. Merged with Health Care Policy & Finance (HCBS) waiver for children effective September 15, 2000.
Certified Nurse’s Aide.
Colorado Nonprofit Association. A private, nonprofit organization whose purpose is to promote and strengthen Colorado’s nonprofit community. www.coloradononprofits.org
Consolidated Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act. Is a law passed by the U.S. Congress in 1985 with provisions for states to include habilitation services offered in home and community based pre-vocational and community employment for qualifying persons.
Business intelligence and corporate performance management software created by Cognos Inc.
Colorado Health Benefit Exchange.
Conflict of Interest. A real or seeming incompatibility between one’s private interests and one’s public or fiduciary duties.
Colorado Innovation Network. A public enterprise established to foster collaboration and idea-sharing across the private sector and academic and public lines to increase the state’s reputation to attract innovative industries and to increase jobs in this sector.
Consumer Operated and Oriented Plan. A program to promote the creation of non-profit, membership-run health insurance companies.
Conditions of Participation (for Medicare Certification)
Comprehensive Outpatient Rehabilitation Facility.
Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation is an emergency medical procedure for a victim of cardiac arrest or respiratory arrest using compressions and lung ventilation.
Cardio Pulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) Directive (also known as a Do Not Resuscitate (DNR Order) allows an individual, agent, guardian, or proxy to refuse resuscitation in the event of cardiac arrest or respiratory arrest.
Child Protective Services.
CPU (computer term)
Central Processing Unit. The CPU is the brain of the computer. Sometimes referred to simply as the processor or central processor, the CPU is where most calculations take place. In terms of computing power, the CPU is the most important element of a computer system.
Colorado Rehabilitation Enterprises.
CRS 27-10.5, as amended
Colorado Revised Statutes. Authorizes services for persons with developmental disabilities.
Community Support Program.
Certified Therapeutic Recreation Specialist.
Children With Autism Medicaid Waiver. Medicaid benefits and behavioral supports for children birth through five years old with medical diagnosis of autism. Families must apply through their local Community Centered Board (e.g., DDRC).
Employer-sponsored health plans with aggregate values that exceed $10,200 for individual coverage and $27,500 for family coverage.
A method of financing services where the payer pays a fixed amount of money per person to a managing agency to deliver a set of services whether or not the person uses the services.
ASD: Atrial Septal Defect An opening occurring between the two upper chambers of the heart.
VSD: Ventricular Septal Defect An opening occurring between the two lower chambers of the heart.
PDA: Patent Ductus Arterious An opening occurring between the aorta and the main pulmonary artery persisting after birth.
Certain services may be purchased outside the basic managed care package (for example, as when long-term support services are delivered through means other than a managed health plan).
This is a dollar amount that the payer pays per consumer to the managing entity. Case rates are keyed to people who actually receive or use services. Capitation rates are keyed to an entire service group whether or not they receive services.
Cash and Counseling
A model program in three states funded by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. Individuals receive funding which they control themselves.
CCB Designated Service Area
The geographical area specified by the Executive Director of the Department of Human Services to be served by a designated CCB.
Cerebral Palsy (CP)
Conditions which exhibit spasticity, weakness, lack of coordination or any other motor problem due to organic brain damage. These include sensory and/or movement disorders, seizures, intellectual, learning disabilities and disorders of behavior.
Children and Family Services (CFS)
DDRC team of resource coordinators and support staff who administer the Family Support Services Program (FSSP) and provide case management for children birth to eighteen active or waiting for EI, FSSP, CES, CHCBS and CWA.
Process of identifying children with disabilities, typically completed by a team in a school district.
Cell structures that carry the genes. These hereditary factors include 46 chromosomes in humans.
Chronological Age (CA)
The actual age of an individual derived from his or her date of birth.
Client (computer term)
The client part of a client-server architecture. Typically, a client is an application that runs on a personal computer or workstation and relies on a server to perform some operations. For example, an e-mail client is an application that enables you to send and receive e-mail.
All muscles around the joint are working so that the joint, when pushed from any direction, won't work.
A broad term that refers to any class of mental "behaviors" such as reasoning or problem solving. Awareness with perception.
Colorado Division of Vocational Rehabilitation Services
A state agency that provides services to eligible individuals with disabilities, such services resulting in an employment outcome. Some services offered by the Division are dependent on financial eligibility.
Colorado Hospital Provider Fee
Fees collected from select hospitals to match additional federal funds which are then redirected back to providers for under-compensated and uncompensated care.
A wage which is proportionate to the prevailing wage paid experienced non-disabled workers in the community for essentially the same type of work based on a comparison of the quantity and quality of production of the disabled worker with that of the non-disabled workers.
A primary system of communication for individuals who cannot vocalize intelligibly. These boards have pictures, symbols or words and may be electronically operated. To use these boards, a person must be able to associate a picture with an object, event or need.
Community Centered Board (CCB)
A nonprofit organization created by the Colorado legislature to determine eligibility of individuals with developmental disabilities within a specific geographical district and develop a plan for services and supports. CCBs are authorized to provide services directly or to purchase services from approved service agencies.
Learning experiences for the purpose of assisting individuals with appropriate social and functional skills in the community.
Community First Choice Option
Provides for statewide home and community-based attendant services and supports for individuals with disabilities, up to 300% of SSI, who require an institutional level of care.
Community Participation (CP)
This service offers opportunities for persons with developmental disabilities to experience valued adult roles in the community. These services should enable an individual to access and participate in typical services, supports and activities that any person might enjoy.
Comprehensive Life Review (CLR)
Thorough review of all aspects of the person’s current life situation by the interdisciplinary team. CDHS/DDD Regs. 1.2.4
Comprehensive Services (Adults) provides 24-hour residential care, employment and other day-type services and transportation. Comprehensive Services is an all-inclusive program that is designed to ensure that all identified needs in a person’s Service (Individualized) Plan (SP) are met. A person cannot be living with his/her family and receive Comprehensive Services.
Generalized abstract idea gathered from a particular instance.
Procedure through which the likelihood of a behavior occurring can be either strengthened or weakened by the event that directly follows the behavior.
Conductive Hearing Loss
A loss in which the intensity of sound vibrations reaching the auditory nerve in the middle ear is reduced.
Coordinated action necessary for safe, efficient feeding.
An informed agreement which is expressed in writing and is freely given.
A stimulus that occurs after a behavior. It makes a behavior more or less likely to occur again in the future.
Consumer Directed Supports
Support services under the control of the consumer.
Contingent or Contingency
The relationship between a behavior and the consequence that follows.
Movement of opposite arm and leg.
These are efforts to direct resources into the most cost-effective services and supports for individuals in order to provide quality services to the most individuals possible.
Measurement of performance as compared to an established standard.
Cues or Prompts
Forms of assistance to a person that helps teach a behavior and indicates what to do to earn a reinforcer. Cues come in physical, visual and verbal forms. Physical assistance refers to physical cues.
Bluish discoloration of the skin or fingernails and toenails caused by a lack of or diminished oxygen supply.
DD Planning Council
A council appointed by the Governor whose goal is to advocate and foster public awareness of problems and issues facing persons with developmental disabilities. Also see CDDPC.
Developmental Disabilities Foundation was established in 1982 to generate additional resources to meet the needs of people with developmental disabilities. It assists DDRC with donations, fund raising, grants, estate planning, and other activities.
Developmental Disabilities Resource Center. DDRC is the Community Centered Board for Jefferson, Clear Creek, Gilpin, and Summit counties.
Division for Developmental Disabilities. DDD is the division within the Department of Human Services, Office of Health and Rehabilitation Services, responsible for the administration of state sponsored services and funding for developmental disabilities for the State of Colorado. This agency oversees services to Community Centered Boards.
Department of Human Services. Formerly referred to as the Department of Social Services.
Deinstitutionalization. The movement of individuals out of large congregate settings into smaller, more individualized settings.
A Do Not Resuscitate order. Also known as a CPR Directive.
Department of Regulatory Agencies.
Department of Public Health and Environment.
Durable Power of Attorney.
Deficit Reduction Act.
Direct Service Professional.
Division of Vocational Rehabilitation.
Division of Youth Services.
Mechanisms used by an individual to protect the ego.
Avoiding admission of certain external stimuli to consciousness.
Being behind other children of the same age in achieving cognitive, adaptive, physical, and social skills.
A disability that occurs before the person reaches 22 years of age, substantially impacts the person’s daily life, is caused by an intellectual disability or related conditions (for example: cerebral palsy, autism, epilepsy, Down syndrome, or other neurological conditions) and significantly impairs the person’s general intellectual and /or adaptive functioning.
A general term for diseases characterized by excessive urination (metabolism) and thirst.
Governmental funding flowing directly to the individual accountable service user.
Perception of directions in relation to the body, particularly awareness of the right and left sides of the body.
To bring under control through enforcement of limits, moving toward development of self-control. (Not the same as punishment.)
Inability to apply the mind to a given task.
The difference between the initial Medicare Part D coverage limit and the catastrophic coverage threshold. Once a Medicare beneficiary surpasses the prescription drug limit, they are responsible for the entire cost of their prescription drugs until expenses reach the catastrophic coverage threshold
Refers to the upper back.
A syndrome resulting from chromosomal abnormalities.
DD services and mental health services
Procedures which guarantee an individual’s right to disagree, refuse, change, or permit services.
Inability to speak or difficulty speaking which results from muscle weakness and/or lack of coordination in the chest, neck or mouth.
Problems related to swallowing.
Shortness of breath.
Emotional Behavioral Disorder; also Elderly Blind or Disabled.
Elderly Blind or Disabled. A waiver program under Medicaid to provide eligible elderly, blind and disabled persons a community alternative to nursing facility care. Age 18 and older.
Early Childhood Connections. The name of the Part C Program of Colorado.
Equal Employment Opportunity Commission
EHA (PL 91 230)
Education of the Handicapped Act of 1970. A federal law that consolidated previous legislation and established a new Title VI, which became known as Part B. This act established a grant program for educational agencies at the local level. Part B was the precursor to the Education for All Handicapped Children Act of 1975 (PL 94-142) which significantly expanded the educational rights and opportunities for children and youth with disabilities. Also see IDEA (Individuals with Disabilities Education Act PL 101-476).
Early Intervention services. Educational supports to children birth to three with developmental concerns.
Employer Identification Number
Enhanced Primary Care Case Management.
Early and Periodic Screening, Diagnosis and Treatment. A Medicaid service for prenatal care and for children birth through age twenty-one.
External Quality Review Organization referred to in 42 CRF 438.310 et seq.
Early Childhood Connections (ECC)
The name of the Part C Program in Colorado.
Early Intervention Services (EI)
As part of Early Childhood Connections in Jefferson, Clear Creek, Gilpin and Summit Counties, DDRC offers educational and therapeutic supports to children birth to three with developmental concerns. Early intervention services are designed to enhance the capacity of families to support their children’s well being, development, learning, and full participation in their communities. Services address desired functional outcomes and are provided in a family’s everyday routines, activities and places.
Repetitive, parrot-like speech using words spoken by others.
Elder Justice Act
Requires skilled nursing facilities under Medicare and nursing facilities under Medicaid to disclose information with regard to ownership, accountability requirements and expenditures.
Emergency Control Procedure
An unanticipated use of a restrictive procedure in order to keep the person receiving services and others safe. CDHS/DDD Regs. 1.2.11
Ability to understand or feel what another is feeling.
An individual with job development and training skills having primary responsibility for planning and/or providing job training and on-going support services.
The completion of the application process and actual entry into or receipt of support services.
Brief temporary changes in the normal functioning of the brain's electrical system. Also known as seizures.
Response to regain or maintain balance.
A form of learning which allows an individual to avoid an unpleasant event.
One or both eyes turning inward abnormally (cross-eyed).
Process of creating and preserving property during a person’s own lifetime and arranging for the transfer of property upon death. In reference to disabilities, the term means advantageous planning of investments, taxes, and trusts that will not sacrifice family security or federal benefits.
Ethernet (computer term)
A local-area network (LAN) protocol that allows connected computers to communicate with each other. Ethernet uses bus or star topology and supports data transfer rates of 10 megabytes per second.
Exceptional Children’s Educational Act
State law and regulations regarding services to school age students with disabilities.
Interpreting a child's verbalization and expanding or increasing it in more detail. Example: Child, “Boy Candy” — Therapist, “Yes, the boy is eating candy.”
Language which people use to make their thoughts and ideas known to others. It may include written, verbal, gestures, sign language, use of a communication board and other forms of expression.
Relatives of the immediate family.
Movement of a joint, generally to straighten the arm, leg or trunk.
Gradual disappearance of a behavior when it is no longer reinforced.
Personality type that primarily derives pleasure from interaction with the outside physical and social environment rather than a person’s own internal environment. Opposite of introversion.
Movement of the hand in harmony with the eyes.
Functional Assessment. A comprehensive analysis of factors which may influence current behavior. CDHS/DDD Regs. 1.2.16
Free, Appropriate Public Education. FAPE is guaranteed by PL 94-142 at no expense to parents and family.
Federal Coordinated Health Care Office.
Fee for Service.
Federal Housing Authority
Federal Matching Assistance Percentage
Family Medical Leave Act
Federal Poverty Level.
Federally Qualified Health Center. Federally designated non-profit or public health care entities that provide comprehensive primary care services regardless of ability to pay.
Family Support Consultant.
Family Support Council. The local group of volunteers within the Community Centered Board’s service area charged with providing guidance and direction to the CCB for the implementation of the Family Support Services Program. CDHS/DDD Regs. 1.2.14
Family Support Services Program. Program designed to offer supportive services for families who have children with special needs living at home.
Full-Time Employee. A personnel, staffing and budgeting term.
To help bring about.
A technique to enable people with communication impairments to communicate. An example might be where a person without a disability places his or her hands on the hands of the person with a disability and enables that person to move about a keyboard and type responses to a set of questions.
Family Support Council
The local group of volunteers within the Community Centered Board’s service area charged with providing guidance and direction to the CCB for the implementation of the Family Support Services Program. CDHS/DDD Regs. 1.2.14
Family Support Plan (FSP)
A plan written for the delivery of family support services. CDHS/DDD Regs. 1.2.15
Family Support Services Program (FSS or FSSP)
Program designed to offer supportive services for families who have children with special needs living at home.
Therapy with the family to work out family problems.
Funding to a provider on a service-by-service basis.
Person in a special relationship of trust, confidence or responsibility in which one party occupies a superior relationship and assumes a duty to act in the dependent’s best interest. This includes a trustee, guardian, counselor or institution, but it could also be a volunteer acting in this special relationship.
An auditory or visual process by which an individual picks a sound or object from its background.
The use of small muscle groups for controlled movements, particularly in object manipulation – such as movements our hands make, how we hold on to things and move our fingers.
Movement of a joint, generally to bend the arm, leg or trunk.
The smoothness with which sounds, syllables, words and phrases are spoken; lack of hesitations, repetitions or stuttering.
Follow Along Services
This program has been discontinued. It has largely been replaced by Supported Living Services (SLS).
Recognition of a form as the same, even though size, color, position or plane has changed.
The ability to recognize a form in all its parts, as a whole unit, then again broken down into its parts.
A genetic cause of intellectual disability
A penalty imposed requiring companies which do not provide insurance to pay part of the cost of any subsidies workers would be entitled to when buying insurance from proposed health exchanges. The government would pay the rest of the subsidies.
Frog Sitting, Inverted-W, W-sitting
Sitting in reverse tailor style.
Functional Assessment (FA)
A comprehensive analysis of factors which may influence current behavior. CDHS/DDD Regs. 1.2.16
Level of achievement.
Graduate Activities Program. Services for adults with disabilities emphasizing maintenance of skills, recreation, leisure, and socialization.
Graduate Equivalent Diploma.
Group Residential Services and Supports. Twenty-four hour services and supports to individuals in residential settings ranging from four to eight beds.
Surgical opening to the stomach; a feeding tube is used to feed the person.
Gastrostomy Tube (G-tube)
A tube which has been surgically inserted into the stomach through the abdominal wall, or a tube which has been inserted through the nasal passage into the stomach, or both.
Responding in a similar fashion across different situations.
Giberson Medical Assistance Homes
A contract agency eligible to serve persons with developmental disabilities within the DDRC service area.
Broad, general target areas of development written by the IFSP, IEP or IP team.
Gray Street Center
DDRC facility located at 5685 Gray Street, Arvada, Colorado.
Movement that involves balance, coordination and large muscle activity as required in holding your head up, walking, running, climbing, jumping and other physical activities.
Therapy involving several individuals as a group at the same time.
A person appointed by the court to be a substitute decision-maker for persons receiving services deemed to be incompetent of making informed decisions for themselves. The powers of a guardian are determined by a judge and may be limited to certain aspects of the person's life.
Home Care Allowance. Also Home Care Agency.
Home Community Based Programs for the Developmentally Disabled. Residential day programs that are funded through a combination of state and federal dollars. Daily reimbursement rates are higher than state funding to provide a more intensive rehabilitation program.
Home and Community Based Services waiver. This is a waiver program to provide Medicaid benefits in the home or community to disabled children who would otherwise be ineligible for Medicaid due to excess parental income and/or resources. Children must be at risk of nursing facility or hospital placement. Serves age birth through 17.
Health Care Financing Administration (federal entity).
Handicapped Children's Program (Department of Health).
Health Care Policy and Financing. A state department effective July 1, 1994.
Home Ownership Education and Resource Opportunities. A statewide collaborative effort of funders, service agencies, and governmental entities focused on providing opportunities for people with disabilities to purchase homes of their own in Colorado.
Host Home Provider. An individual or individuals who provide supports in his or her home to one or two persons receiving services who are not related to the provider. CDHS/DDD Regs. 1.2.41
Health and Human Services
The Health Insurance Portability And Accountability Act of 1996 (August 21), Public Law 104-191, which amended the Internal Revenue Service Code of 1986. Also known as the Kennedy-Kassebaum Act, the Act includes a section, Title II, entitled Administrative Simplification, requiring:
1. Improved efficiency in healthcare delivery by standardizing electronic data interchange, and
2. Protection of confidentiality and security of health data through setting and enforcing standards.
Human Immuno-Deficiency Virus.
Human Rights Committee. A third-party mechanism to safeguard the legal rights of persons receiving services by participating in the granting of informed consent, monitoring the suspension of rights of persons receiving services, monitoring behavior development programs in which persons with developmental disabilities are involved, monitoring the use of psychotropic medication by persons with developmental disabilities, and at the committee’s option, either providing or ensuring the investigation of allegations of abuse or neglect of persons with developmental disabilities who are receiving services or supports under this article. CRS 27-10.5-102
Health Resources and Services Administration
Human services Research Institute.
Housing and Urban Development. Section 8 provides rental assistance. A federal agency.
The process by which a person with developmental disabilities is assisted in acquiring and maintaining life skills to cope more effectively with personal and developmental demands, and to increase the level of physical, mental, vocational and social ability through services.
Kneel with one leg up.
Preference for use of one hand over the other.
A mental or physical impairment which prevents or interferes with normal mental or physical activities and achievement. The preferred term is “disability.”
Hard Drive (computer term)
The mechanism that reads and writes data on a magnetic hard disk. Hard disk drives for personal computers generally have storage capacities in the 500-megabyte to 2-gigabyte range.
An inflammation of the liver caused by the Hepatitis B virus. Hepatitis B is contagious.
Non-licensed private residential setting that provides residential supports to no more than two persons in the HCB-DD waiver. The host home must be the primary residence of the provider.
Host Home Provider (HHP)
An individual or individuals who provide supports in his or her home to one or two persons receiving services who are not related to the provider. CDHS/DDD Regs. 1.2.41
Human Rights Committee (HRC)
A third-party mechanism to safeguard the legal rights of persons receiving services by participating in the granting of informed consent, monitoring the suspension of rights of persons receiving services, monitoring behavior development programs in which persons with developmental disabilities are involved, monitoring the use of psychotropic medication by persons with developmental disabilities, and at the committee’s option, either providing or ensuring the investigation of allegations of abuse or neglect of persons with developmental disabilities who are receiving services or supports under this article. CRS 27-10.5-102
This condition results from widened cerebral spaces in the brain that inhibit the flow of cerebral spinal fluid. The cerebrospinal fluid collects and puts pressure on the brain. This can cause an enlarged head in infants and may be treated with a fluid shunt.
Excessive or abnormally high level of motor activity. May be associated with Attention Deficit Disorder.
Excessive muscular activity.
High blood pressure.
Increased tension in muscles; spastic.
Low blood pressure.
Reduced tension in muscles; floppy.
Interagency Coordinating Council. This is an advisory group of parents and professionals who advise the Governor on early intervention issues.
Intermediate Care Facility for the Mentally Retarded or intermediate care facility for people with mental retardation and developmental disabilities (ICFMR/DD). An ICF/MR provides a level of medical or custodial care beyond that required in supported living or group home placements, but less than a full-time intensive medical or custodial need. There are three ICF/MR facilities in Colorado: Grand Junction Regional Center (state), Wheat Ridge Regional Center (state), and Good Shepherd (private sector).
Individuals with Disabilities Education Act of 1990. See PL 101-476.
Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act of 2004. IDEIA 2004 reauthorizes IDEA and maintains the basic principles of the law, a free appropriate public education for all students with disabilities, in the least restrictive environment; however, there are many changes and modifications to the IEP process and other aspects of the identification and evaluation of students with disabilities.
Interdisciplinary Team. The team of people who develop the Individualized Plan (IP). Members of the team include the person applying for or receiving services, his or her parents, guardian, the resource coordinator, a psychologist, the Community Centered Board administrator and other persons who can help identify the person's needs and appropriate programs.
Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities.
Individualized Education Program. An educational plan for a specific student written by a multidisciplinary team. The plan states learning objectives and steps to meet the objective within a given time frame.
Individualized Family Service Plan. A plan for an infant or toddler (birth through age three) written by a multidisciplinary team. The plan includes information on the child's present level of functioning, a statement of family strengths and needs, as related to the child, major outcomes expected, and services needed.
Individualized Plan. A written plan designed to identify the total needs of a person receiving services and the services required to meet those needs. Also referred to as the Service Plan.
Independent Physician Association
Intelligence Quotient. A derived score from an intelligence test that provides information as to how an individual's aptitude for learning compares to other individuals of the same age.
Individual Residential Services and Supports uses a variety of living arrangements designed to meet the unique needs of the person receiving services with no more than two persons receiving services per setting.
Federal Impairment Related Work Expenses. A term used by Social Security Administration in association with determining a person’s social security benefits and payments. It is the cost of items or supports an individual may need in order to be able to work.
Intervention Services Administrators. Administrators responsible for special education in the Jefferson County School District.
Individual Service and Support Plan. A written plan designed by a service agency to identify specific program objectives and how progress will be measured. It becomes a supplement to the Service Plan.
Individual Transition Plan.
A disease or condition arising spontaneously or from an obscure or unknown cause. Peculiar to the individual.
Imitation or Modeling
Learning taking place as a function of copying a behavior of another person.
The administration, usually by injection, of serums as a means of making a person immune from developing specific diseases.
DPT Diphtheria, Pertussis, Tetanus
MMR Measles, Mumps, Rubella
OPV Oral Polio Vaccine
HIB Hemophilus Influenza Type B
Rash with small blisters which become crusted and drain; usually occurring around the nose and mouth. Impetigo is contagious.
To have the opportunity to participate in all activities available in a community; for example, education in a traditional classroom.
Provides guidance and assistance to states to implement programs to support the self-direction of services and supports by persons with disabilities and their families.
When an individual, formerly receiving DDRC services, now lives independently. Or a residential situation in which a person with disabilities lives by him or herself with limited assistance from others.
Requires most U.S. citizens and legal residents to have health insurance.
Individualized Education Program (IEP)
An educational plan for a specific student written by a multidisciplinary team. The plan states learning objectives and steps to meet the objective within a given time frame.
Individualized Plan (IP)
A written plan designed to identify the total needs of a person receiving services and the services required to meet those needs. Also referred to as the Service Plan.
Individual Service and Support Plan (ISSP)
A written plan designed by a service agency to identify specific program objectives and how progress will be measured. It becomes a supplement to the I-Plan.
A program designed to provide a safe, sanitary and comfortable environment and to prevent the development and transmission of disease and infection.
A decision based on knowledge of the advantages and disadvantages and implications of choosing a particular course of action.
State-based health insurance which provides minimum coverage standards through an essential benefits package.
To reduce or not allow something to be seen, as in abnormal reflexes or tone.
Activities performed by a resource coordinator to determine a developmental disability. Includes gathering information to start a person in a meaningful program of services.
Reducing a reflex so that it is no longer seen.
Participation in the mainstream of community life. Participation means the person with disabilities maintains social relationships with family, peers and nondisabled people in the community. They may work and live alongside people without disabilities.
The term used to describe a significant impairment of intellectual functioning and adaptive behavior limitations identified prior to age 18.
Those multiple interactive relationships necessary to create a sense of belonging and support between people. These relationships are mutually sought, sustained over time and are beneficial to those involved.
Internet (computer term)
A global web connecting millions of computers. Unlike on-line services, which are centrally controlled, the Internet is decentralized by design. Each Internet computer, called a host, is independent. Its operators can choose which Internet services to provide to its local users and which local services to make available to the global Internet community.
Dying without a will. Property passes to heirs as required by state probate laws, regardless of how the deceased may have intended property to be distributed. If a family does not plan properly, a person with disabilities could inherit resources that exceed limits set for participation in programs such as Medicaid and, therefore, lose their federal benefits.
Intranet (computer term)
A Web site or group of Web sites belonging to an organization, usually a corporation, accessible only by the organization's members, employees, or others with authorization. An intranet Web site looks and acts like any other Web site, but the firewall surrounding an intranet fends off unauthorized access.
Personality type that primarily derives pleasure from pursuits conducted by oneself rather than pursuits involving others. Opposite of extroversion.
Unchangeable, as in a trust that cannot be changed.
Joint Budget Committee.
Jefferson County Department of Human Services.
Jefferson Center for Mental Health. The community mental health center serving Jefferson, Gilpin and Clear Creek counties in Colorado. www.jeffersonmentalhealth.org
The federal Job Training Partnership Act.
Jeffco Transition Services. JTS is a collaboration between the Jefferson County Public Schools and DDRC. This program is designed to support students ages 18-21 in their last three years of school eligibility. Considerable attention is devoted to the design of training programs so work, recreation, independent living skills and social inclusion are viable options for students with severe disabilities as they transition to adult life.
Specialized terms used among professionals in a given discipline. Clear and meaningful communication is often hindered by the use of jargon and should be avoided when discussing developmental disabilities with parents, those with disabilities, or others. It is also confusing when individuals from several disciplines are discussing a topic since some words have different meanings in different disciplines.
Early language development stage where children use sounds and some words to resemble meaningful conversation.
Yellowish tint to the skin. Indication of liver involvement.
A device used to hold materials being worked on or for guiding a tool or process in production.
A person who assists people in integrated employment situations.
Joint Budget Committee
A committee of the state legislature responsible for setting the budget for expenditure of funds.
Muscles in front of and behind a joint that work at the same time. See co-contraction.
Thickening of skin.
Kinesthesia or Kinesthetic
Awareness of movements of body parts.
LAN (computer term)
Local Area Network. A computer network that spans a relatively small area. Most LANs are confined to a single building or group of buildings.
Licensed Clinical Social Worker
Local Education Agency.
Level of Care.
Licensed Practical Nurse.
Legislative Request for Information.
Licensed Social Worker
Long Term Care.
Long Term Services and Supports.
Inner ear. Used to maintain equilibrium.
Left and right awareness; ability to distinguish between body sides.
Learning Disabilities Association of America (LDA)
A nonprofit organization formed to advance the education and general welfare of children and adults of normal or potentially normal intelligence who manifest disabilities of a perceptual, conceptual, or coordinative nature. The organization was founded in 1964 as the Association of Children with Learning Disabilities (ACLD). The name was modified to include both “children and Adults,” but the acronym remained the same. In 1990, the name was officially changed to the Learning Disabilities Association of America (LDA). www.ldanatl.org
Least Restrictive Environment (LRE)
The most productive environment for an individual in which to address his or her needs. Such placement should range along a continuum of services and can include institutional placement, special schools, special classes, resource rooms or regular classroom placement. The family and their IEP or IHP team best decide the decision of least restrictive placement. Also see Least Restrictive Alternative.
Time when a person is free from work and duties.
Document prepared for health care providers expressing the desire not to be kept alive by artificial means if disabled beyond a reasonable expectation of recovery.
Local Center of Excellence
A group of people who promote collaboration and using best practices to improve health and health care.
The ability to turn toward a sound source.
Mistreatment, Abuse, Neglect and Exploitation
Managed Care Organization. This is a risk-bearing entity which receives a fixed payment to assure that a set of consumers get all the services they require as specified in the managed care plan. An MCO does not directly provide services.
Multidisciplinary Evaluation. Performed by the Multidisciplinary Team.
Multidisciplinary Team. A team comprised of a child’s parents and professionals from various disciplines responsible for evaluating and reevaluating children thought to be eligible for early intervention services.
Money Follows the Person.
Mentally Ill waiver. A waiver program under Medicaid to provide persons with major mental illness a community alternative to nursing facility care. Age 18 and older.
Most in Need. Terminology indicating that rationed services are allocated to those most in need.
MIS (computer term)
Management Information System. MIS refers to a class of software that provides managers with tools for organizing and evaluating their departments.
Medical Loss Ratio.
Medicaid Management Information System is the computerized information system that provides management information and support for the Medicaid program, administered by the Department of Human Services.
Managed Service Organization. An MSO integrates the functions of a managed care organization (MCO) with service delivery. An MSO may take the form of an integrated provider service network which agrees to form a separate entity that will accept risk and capitation, manage use across the network and carry out other MCO-type functions.
Masters in Social Work.
Margaret Walters Center
A barrier-free program facility operated by DDRC. Located at 12665 West 52nd Avenue, Arvada, CO, named in honor of Margaret (Meg) Walters, esteemed Red Cross volunteer.
Term used by educators to refer to the integration of children with disabilities into regular classes for part or all of the school day.
Strategies that seek to maximize the value of services by controlling their cost and use. Quality is promoted and measured to ensure cost effectiveness.
A funding source authorized under Title XIX of the Social Security Act that provides health care assistance to qualified individuals. The program is funded by both federal and state money, but is administered by the state.
Expands Medicaid to 133% of the federal poverty level.
A federal health insurance program run by the Health Care Financing Administration that includes both hospital and medical insurance.
Mental Age (MA)
A raw score from which an age equivalency can be determined.
Current terminology is Intellectual Disability. The American Association on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities defines mental retardation as “a disability characterized by significant limitations both in intellectual functioning and in adaptive behavior as expressed in conceptual, social, and practical adaptive skills. This disability originates before age 18. Five assumptions essential to the application of the definition are: (1) Limitations in present functioning must be considered within the context of community environments typical of the individual's age, peers and culture. (2) Valid assessment considers cultural and linguistic diversity as well as differences in communication, sensory, motor, and behavioral factors. (3) Within an individual, limitations often coexist with strengths. (4) An important purpose of describing limitations is to develop a profile of needed supports. and (5) With appropriate personalized supports over a sustained period, the life functioning of the person with an intellectual disability generally will improve.”
Space between the eardrum and the inner ear. Houses three bones and two muscles.
An imaginary line down the center of the body.
Capability of moving.
Workers on short-term contracts who serve as role models for workers with disabilities. This allows flexibility within the work force to develop diversified contracts.
Imitating or repeating a sound or action.
Refers to one eye that is used while the other eye is nonfunctional, covered, or shut.
The ability of the brain to carry out and sequence unfamiliar actions.
Term for students having two or more significant impairments, one of which is cognitive. Historically this was referred to as Multiple Handicapped.
National Council for Therapeutic Recreation Certification.
Neuro Developmental Treatment. A specific therapeutic technique to help a child gain more normal movement patterns.
National Industries for the Severely Handicapped.
New Opportunities that bring Valuable Alternatives. A parent-funded DDRC program to help individuals with disabilities develop better connections to their community and support the Self-advocacy Program.
No Wrong Door.
Supports and resources provided in the community by family, friends, neighbor, and others who are not paid to provide such supports.
A behavior that results in removing something that the person does not like. Because the behavior allows the individual to stop or remove something that is unwanted, the behavior is likely to occur again. For example, upon hearing loud music, a person turns down the radio to remove the stimulus hurting the person’s ears. Next time the person encounters a similar situation, the person is likely to turn the radio down again because it resulted in removing something that the person found aversive. See Escape Learning.
Excessive urination during the night.
The process of making available to people with disabilities patterns of life which are as close as possible to typical circumstances and ways of life in society.
Siblings (brothers and sisters) and parents.
Constant involuntary eye movement.
Office of Administrative Courts.
Old Age Pension
Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act. A 1987 act that applies to eligible individuals residing in or moving from nursing facilities. OBRA 1993 gives Medicaid the right to access trusts.
Oculus Dexter. The right eye.
Organized Health Care Delivery System.
Office of Inspector General
Oculus sinister. The left eye.
The federal Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services.
Occupational Safety and Health Administration.
Oculus uterus. Each eye.
Occupational Therapist (OT)
Therapist who uses purposeful activities to improve movement and coordination, visual perceptual skills, self-help skills, and reading skills. An OT is also trained to adapt equipment.
Pertaining to the eye or vision.
Oculus dexter (OD)
The right eye.
Oculus sinister (OS)
The left eye.
Oculus uterque (OU)
Supreme Court decision affirming the right of individuals with disabilities to live in their community.
Pertaining to the mouth.
Ability to move and coordinate structures of the mouth.
Oral Peripheral Exam
Examination of the mouth including lips, jaw, teeth, hard and soft palate and tongue. The exam involves assessing both structure and function or movement to determine adequacy for speech.
The comprehension and adjustment of an individual to his or her environment. Refers to identity of persons, location and time. Orientation may also refer to training that new employees receive.
Infection occurring in the middle ear.
Adult Vocational Services Parent Advisory Committee. A committee composed of individuals with children or relatives in the AVS program. The purpose of the committee is to promote the quality of life for individuals being served in the vocational program through supporting the development of activities that support choices and opportunities for community involvement, vocational training, and employment. This committee meets on a regular basis.
Personal Affordable Living, Inc. This organization owns condominiums and townhomes that it rents at affordable prices to adults with developmental disabilities who want to live independently.
Prior Authorization Review. Process whereby requested services and levels of support are authorized by the state prior to access. PAR shows what services are authorized for persons enrolled in Medicaid funded waiver programs (residential, day, CMW) or Supported Living Services.
Program Approved Service Agency.
Preadmission Screening and Resident Review.
The federal Plan to Achieve Self-sufficiency. A way for people who receive Social Security to set aside some of that money to help them achieve self-sufficiency without losing benefits.
Perceptual communications or politically correct.
Personal Care Alternative. A residential program up to three people, designed to meet the unique needs of the individuals.
Primary Care Case Management.
Primary Care Medical Provider
Primary Care Physician.
Pervasive Developmental Disorder. A broad category of disability that involves problems in social interaction and verbal and nonverbal communication. PDD is not a specific diagnosis but an umbrella term for several disorders and syndromes considered to be mental and/or behavioral disorders. Its major diagnosis is autism. PDD not otherwise specified (PDDNOS) refers to children who have autistic characteristics but do not formally qualify for the diagnosis.
Parent Education and Assistance for Kids. A parent education group focused on special education law and regulation.
Post Eligibility Treatment of Income. Applies to Medicaid programs and involves the portion of financial responsibility of the person.
Education for All Handicapped Children Act of 1975. A federal law growing out of and strengthening previous acts. This is the core of federal funding for special education. In 1990 this act was reauthorized and expanded under PL 101-476, the Education of the Handicapped Act Amendments of 1990, and was renamed the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA).
Education of the Handicapped Act Amendments of 1990. Also known as the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). This federal law amended and expanded The Education for All Handicapped Children Act of 1975. The act uses “people-first” language, replacing “handicapped children” with “individuals with disabilities” and the definition of those with disabilities was expanded. The law mandates special education services for children ages three to twenty-one and extends services for infants from birth to age two.
Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act of 2004. IDEIA 2004 reauthorizes the IDEA and maintains the basic principles of the law, a free appropriate public education for all students with disabilities, in the least restrictive environment; however, there are many changes and modifications to the IEP process and other aspects of the identification and evaluation of students with disabilities.
Persons Living With AIDS (HCBS Program Waiver)
Per member, per month. (A per capital administrative fee)
Plan of Care. Also, Plan of Correction
Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act.
A skin test used to detect tuberculosis.
Prevention Quality Indicators. A set of measures that can be used with hospital inpatient discharge data to identify quality of care for “ambulatory care-sensitive conditions”. These are conditions for which good outpatient care can potentially prevent the need for hospitalization or for which early intervention can prevent complications or more severe disease.
Post Traumatic Stress Disorder.
Children playing beside each other, but not interacting to a great extent.
That part of Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act (IDEIA) which regulates infant and toddler services.
Reimbursement of specified services on a fee-for-service basis as opposed to paying for them as part of a capitation arrangement.
The group of intellectual, social and/or educational equals with which an individual associates.
The process by which sensory information is interpreted which gives experience or a given sensation meaning.
Input (activities of sensory or visual nature) and output (activities of motor or muscular nature). The two are interrelated as parts of total activity.
Perceptual Motor Dysfunction
A condition when the central nervous system is unable to perceive and interpret visual and sensory input accurately and produces the appropriate motor response.
An instructional task that has the following criteria: a) who will do it; b) under what circumstances; c) at what time; d) the standard acceptable; and e) how to measure attainment.
Vision outside the central area of the retina. Side vision.
A behavior that continues even after the need for it no longer exists and is not appropriate. For example, the child may say, “I go, go, go, go, go, go.”
Person Centered Planning
Designing services and supports specifically around the individual needs and requests and based on what the individual already has in place that is working.
Personal Futures Plan
A plan that focuses on the dreams and desires of an individual and the quality of the person's life.
Pervasive Developmental Disorder (PDD)
A broad category of disability that involves problems in social interaction and verbal and nonverbal communication. PDD is not a specific diagnosis but an umbrella term for several disorders and syndromes considered to be mental and/or behavioral disorders. Its major diagnosis is autism. PDD not otherwise specified (PDDNOS) refers to children who have autistic characteristics but do not formally qualify for the diagnosis.
Fear that is excessive.
An instructional approach to reading that stresses sounds of words in relation to their written representations. Science of speech pronunciation.
Intolerance to light.
The ability to move, see, and hear.
Physical Therapist (PT)
Therapist who works with an individual, generally through exercise, to improve movement patterns.
A pattern of hording and eating non-food materials (rocks, grass, paper, etc.).
Protects people receiving Old Age Pension (O.A.P.) from losing Medicaid due to cost of living increases in Social Security benefits.
The child lies on his stomach with neck, shoulders and hips off the floor. This position helps develop the muscles that oppose gravity.
Blood test performed soon after a child is born. The test detects phenylketonuria, which is a metabolic disorder that fails to oxidize amino acids and untreated may result in an intellectual disability.
A type of estate planning in which people decide to make a gift to an organization either during their lifetime or after their death. Planned gifts can be real estate, cash, stock, or other.
Position in Space
Special relationships of an observer to his or her environment. Perception of objects being to the side of, behind, before, above or below.
The immediate presentation of something rewarding following a behavior which increases that behavior, typically hugs, praise, food, special activities and prizes.
Power of Attorney: Health Care
Legal document used to appoint someone to make health care decisions for a person who is not able to do so.
Power of Attorney: Property
Legal document used to appoint someone to make property decisions, such as selling property or making important investment decisions for a person who is not able to do so. Power of Attorney is not the same as Guardianship.
Physical grasp. The way in which the hand takes an object.
Prepares a participant for paid community employment. Includes teaching such concepts as attendance, task completion, problem solving and safety needed to obtain employment. The goal of this service is to help the participant obtain paid community employment within five years.
An employee who is responsible for overseeing designated programs, the individuals receiving services from those programs, and compliance with regulations.
Lying on the stomach.
Awareness of movement, posture, and changes in the equilibrium.
Affecting the mental state, such as a drug that has that action.
Physical and psychological aspects of activity.
Drugs which affect mental activity, behavior or perception. Psychotropic drugs include tranquilizers, sedatives, and anti-depressants.
Type One Punishment: Type One punishment procedures consist of presenting a stimulus contingent on a behavior which, in turn, decreases the behavior from occurring. Type One punishment is ILLEGAL to use with adults with developmental disabilities.
Type Two Punishment: Type Two punishment procedures consist of removing a stimulus contingent on a behavior which in turn decreases the behavior. Prior to using Type Two punishment procedures you MUST receive prior approval from the Human Rights Committee, with the exception of exclusionary time out which is illegal to use with adults with developmental disabilities.
Quality Improvement Organizations. An organization in each state which serves as that state’s quality improvement organization contractor. QIOs are private, mostly not-for-profit organizations which are staffed by doctors and other health care professionals who are trained to review medical care and help beneficiaries with complaints about the quality of care and to implement improvements in the quality of care available throughout the spectrum of care.
Quality Improvement Strategy.
Hands and knees posture.
An organized set of activities intended to systematically ensure minimal safety of people receiving services and to encourage performance improvements.
Quality of Life
The assessment of an individual’s meaningful relationships and activities from the individual’s point of view.
RAM (computer term)
Random Access Memory. RAM is a type of computer memory that can be accessed randomly; that is, any byte of memory can be accessed without touching the preceding bytes. RAM is the most common type of memory found in computers and other devices, such as printers.
Routines Based Interview. A structured conversation that walks a family through each step of a typical day in their life. It identifies the family’s concerns for their child and facilitates goal writing.
Resource Coordinator or Resource Coordination. See Resource Coordination.
Regional Care Collaborative Organization. Connects Medicaid participants with Medicaid providers, helps them find community and social services in their area, and assists with coordination of care.
Request for Information.
Request for Proposal. Generally an RFP is issued to suppliers of an item or a service indicating a desire to purchase on behalf of the entity issuing the RFP. DDRC uses the RFP process to locate services for our consumers.
Rural Health Center.
Referral and Placement Committee.
Regional Transportation District. The Denver metro area public bus transportation system.
Jefferson County School District. (Reorganized District #1.)
A person’s understanding of the language of others.
Movement of the arms and/or legs in an alternating fashion.
The use of time in a manner designed for therapeutic refreshment of one’s body or mind.
The use of recreational activity in a directed program in the care, treatment and rehabilitation of ill, disabled, and elderly persons.
An involuntary response to a stimulus.
Process of restoring to useful activity a person who has been ill or who is disabled. Accomplished through education and therapy.
Involves the analysis of a job task or independent living activity that presents a problem to a disabled person and correction or reduction of this problem. Accomplished through adaptive jigs to help job performance, improved positioning, or highly technical solutions.
Contingent consequences that strengthen behavior.
Services as stated in the Education for Handicapped Children's Act which are required to assist a child with disabilities to benefit from special education.
A person or organization that is authorized to cash and manage public assistance checks (Social Security, Supplemental Security Income) for a person deemed incapable of doing so.
An individual living in a DDRC residential facility.
Residential Care Facility
A residential facility that makes available personal services, protective oversight, social care due to a client’s impaired capacity to live independently and regular supervision available on a 24-hr. basis, but not to the extent that 24-hr. medical or nursing care is required.
Part of the Home and Community Based Services for the Developmentally Disabled is the residential care provided for under the waiver.
Resource Allocation Committee (RAC)
The DDRC Resource Allocation Committee meets monthly to review plans and service requests for those enrolled in Supported Living and Children’s Extensive Services.
Services provided by resource coordinators of Community Centered Boards to assist in developmental disability determination, Service Plan development, the coordination of services and evaluation of services with maximum participation by the individual and his or her family, guardian or authorized representative. Often referred to as Resource Coordination or Service Coordination or Case Management.
Ear drums that are drawn in as a result of negative pressure in the middle ear.
Wheat Ridge Regional Center.
Reflex that enables a person to bring his or her head or body into a straight line.
Robert Weiland Center
A barrier-free program facility operated by DDRC located at 3636 South Independence, Lakewood, CO. Named in honor of Dr. Robert Weiland, esteemed special educator.
Twisting of the body trunk.
Routines Based Interview (RBI)
A structured conversation that walks a family through each step of a typical day in their life. It identifies the family’s concerns for their child and facilitates goal writing.
Service Agency. Also see Service Provider Organization.
State Children’s Health Insurance Program.
Statewide Data and Analytics Contractor.
State Education Agency.
Special Education Advisory Council. An advisory council of parents to consult on special education issues.
Single Entry Point for service and support referral through local Department of Human Services or Community Centered Board.
Special Education Preschool.
Special Education and Related Services.
Small Business Health Options Program.
Significant Identifiable Emotional Disorder. Term from the Colorado Department of Education Regulations referring to individuals with emotional involvement.
Supports Intensity Scale. A psychometric tool created by AAIDD to evaluate practical support requirements of a person with an intellectual disability through a positive and thorough interview process.
Supported Living Consultant. An SLC assists individuals in getting their needs met through the Supported Living Services program.
Significant Limited Intellectual Capacity. Term from the Colorado Department of Education regulations referring to mentally retarded individuals.
Supported Living Services. Provides services and supports tailored to the needs of the individual living in his or her own home or family home.
Senior Management Team. Department directors, executive directors, and senior managers of DDRC.
Special Olympics Colorado.
Service Plan Authorization Limit.
Service Provider Organization. A SPO is an individual or any publicly or privately operated program, organization or business providing service or supports for persons with developmental disabilities.
Social Security Disability Income. Federal benefit program sponsored by the Social Security Administration. Primary factor: disability and/or benefits received from deceased or disabled parent, benefit depends upon money contributed to the Social Security program either by the individual involved and/or the parent involved.
Supplemental Security Income. Federal financial benefit program sponsored by the Social Security Administration.
Symmetrical Tonic Neck Reflex. Bending of the neck causes bending of the arms and straightening in legs. Straightening of the neck causes straightening in the arms and bending in legs.
School to Work Alliance Project.
Safety Control Procedure
A written, planned restrictive procedure regarding when and how staff would physically intervene to keep an individual and/or others around the individual safe. CDHS/DDD 1.2.37
Curving of the spine.
Tools to determine if more extensive assessment needs to be completed.
The section of the Vocational Rehabilitation Act amendments of 1973 that is generally referred to as the civil rights clause for people with disabilities.
Unusual muscular or behavioral activity caused by abnormal brain impulses without purpose.
How an individual views himself or herself.
Activities which promote or allow for consumer choice and the ability of a consumer or family to use principles of freedom, authority, support and responsibility.
Services funded by government but under the control and direction of the service user.
Sensorineural Hearing Loss
Damage to the nerves in the ear that results in hearing loss.
Information obtained from touch, pressure, pain, temperature, sight, smell, taste and movement.
The brain's ability to receive, organize and interpret sensory information. Sensory integration programs focus on assisting an individual to increase this capacity.
In the development of a child, learning occurs through the interaction between the senses and muscular system. The child explores by touching, tasting, seeing, smelling, moving, hearing, etc.
Server (computer term)
A computer or device on a network that manages network resources. For example, a file server is a computer and storage device dedicated to storing files. Any user on the network can store files on the server. A print server is a computer that manages one or more printers, and a network server is a computer that manages network traffic.
Also referred to as Program Approved Service Agency (PASA) and Service Provider Organization (SPO).
Service and SupportOne or more of the following: education, training, independent or supported living assistance, therapies, identification of natural supports and other activities.
A written plan designed to identify the total needs of a person receiving services and the services required to meet those needs. Also referred to as the Individualized Plan (IP).
Service Provider Organization (SPO)
A Service Provider Organization is an individual or any publicly or privately operated program, organization or business providing service or supports for persons with developmental disabilities.
A process using a lower cost but equally effective service in place of a higher cost service.
A technique for teaching new behavior by reinforcing successive approximations to the goal behavior.
A brother or sister.
Means of communication that uses hand gestures as symbols for words.
Social and Emotional Development
The ability to interact with others.
The process whereby an individual acquires the knowledge, values, facility with language, social skills and social sensitivity that enables him or her to become integrated into and behave adaptively within a society.
Perception of the relation of two or more objects to an individual and to each other.
Specially designed instruction.
Special Needs (or Third Party) Trust
An individual, discretionary trust prepared for a person who has a disability. This is intended to supplement, not replace government benefits. A trustee must administer the funds; the person with a disability cannot have direct access to the funds. The trust should be irrevocable (cannot be changed) and be written by a lawyer specially trained in elder or Medicaid law.
Speech and Language Pathologist or Speech Therapist
An individual with a Master’s Degree and certificate in speech and language pathology. Speech and language pathologists are qualified to diagnose speech, language, voice and fluency (stuttering) disorders and to plan and implement therapy programs.
Accomplishment of a specific task under specific conditions. (Not able to do the task in all situations.)
Staffing (Placement) Review
Educational term meaning a meeting to plan a program for the student.
State Balancing Incentive Program
Enhanced federal matching payments provided to states which increase the proportion of Medicaid long-term services and supports dollars going toward HCBS, expand covered services and cover individuals with higher levels of need.
A person, place, or thing - including light, sound, taste, texture and odor. A stimulus evokes a person to respond in a certain way.
Eyes cannot move in unison due to lack of muscular coordination. Squinting.
The reflex which protects the ear from loud noises.
Term referring to a bacterial infection caused by the organism streptococcus that may be manifested by upper respiratory or skin symptoms. Strep is contagious.
Used by Managed Care Organizations (MCOs) to shift financial risk to provider agencies or provider networks.
One who follows another in a particular office. A successor guardian is named to follow the original guardian if the original person or institution can no longer hold office. A successor trustee takes over management of a trust after the initial trustee ceases to act. Families should name a number of successors to ensure someone will outlive the person with the disability.
Lying on the back.
Paid employment for adults with developmental disabilities who, without long-term support, are not likely to succeed in a regular job.
Both arms or both legs move together.
Abnormal patterned movement of an arm or leg caused by central nervous system damage.
A requirement that individuals cannot have assets over 300% of the maximum allowable for SSI payments and still be eligible for Medicaid funding.
Temporary Aid to Needy Families.
Traumatic Brain Injury. An acquired injury to the brain caused by an external physical force resulting in total or partial functional eligibility of psychosocial impairment, or both, that adversely affects a child's educational performance.
Targeted Case Management. Case management services which are provided as a Medicaid benefit for a specific target group of Medicaid recipients who have a developmental disability and who meet the program eligibility criteria.
Telecommunications Device for the Deaf.
The federal Tax Equity and Fiscal Responsibility Act of 1992.
Tax Identification Number
The federal Targeted Jobs Tax Credit.
Third Party Liability.
Tourette Syndrome. A neurological disorder characterized by tics - involuntary, rapid, sudden movements or vocalizations that occur repeatedly in the same way.
Refers to the sense of touch. Consists of: a) a system of protection, like fight or flight response; b) a system of discrimination by which an individual correctly identifies and distinguishes touch sensations.
Reacting negatively to being touched.
Tardive Dyskinesia (TD)
Condition of automatic stereotypical movements that occur as an undesired effect of therapy with certain psychoactive drugs.
Behavior targeted for increase or decrease as part of a behavioral program.
Targeted Case Management
Case management services which are provided as a Medicaid benefit for a specific target group of Medicaid recipients having a develop-mental disability and who meet the program eligibility criteria.
TASH is an international association of people with disabilities, their family members, other advocates, and professionals working for a society in which inclusion of all people in all aspects of society is the norm. TASH is concerned with human dignity, civil rights, education, and independence for all individuals with disabilities. Colorado has a TASH chapter; national headquarters are in Washington, D.C. www.tash.org
A meeting that includes persons working with or having an interest in an individual’s services and supports.
Temporary Aid To Needy Families (TANF)
The time-limited welfare assistance authorized in the Welfare Reform Act of 1996.
A trust set up by a will. A will is the best way to fund or put resources into a Special Needs Trust.
Therapeutic Recreation uses treatment, education, and recreation services to help people with disabilities and other conditions to develop and use their leisure in ways that enhance their health, functional abilities, independence, and quality of life.
An indirect technique used to facilitate swallowing.
Medicaid. Federal program that provides funding for programs and services to be offered to the population of persons with developmental disabilities. Moderate Supervision Group Homes are one of the services provided.
Federal program administered by Colorado Department of Social Services that provides money for day programs for persons twenty-one years of age and older. The DDRC work center receives these funds for some individuals.
A conditioned reinforcer redeemable for other reinforcing items or activities. Examples of tokens include money, poker chips, coupons and points.
Tourette Syndrome (TS)
A neurological disorder characterized by tics - involuntary, rapid, sudden movements or vocalizations that occur repeatedly in the same way.
Opening and inserting a tube into the trachea to facilitate breathing.
An approach to intervention which is based on the premise that one person can perform the roles of professionals by providing services to the consumer under the on-going guidance of the individuals from the other disciplines involved. Representatives of various disciplines work together to develop the plan, but only one or two members actually provide the services.
A coordinated set of activities for a student, designed within an outcome-oriented process, which promotes movement from school to post-school activities including post secondary education, vocational training and education, integrated employment, continuing and adult education, adult services, independent living and community services.
A pressure test that tells how the ear canal, eardrum, eustachian tube and middle ear bones are working. The ear canal is closed off with a probe tip, and as air pressure is introduced into the canal, eardrum movement is recorded.
See new name – UCEDD.
University Centers for Excellence in Developmental Disabilities. Federally supported research programs regarding developmental disabilities.
Uniform Long Term Care. Assessment process for many Medicaid funded programs.
Protrusion of navel, corrected by surgery.
Involving one side of the body.
A technique employed in managed care systems to evaluate the extent to which certain services are used by certain individuals or groups
A small space or cavity at the beginning of a canal (ear, heart, mouth, etc.).
Adaptive behavior assessment tool frequently used to determine a developmental disability.
An interconnected group of individual PCCM practices, PCCM partnerships, clinics and common-ownership enterprises that appears to be one large single network to the client. Enables providers to communicate with each other simply through a consistent, web-based user interface so that each provider has, at the point of service, information about all other services previously offered to the client anywhere in the network.
Sensory information received through the eyes and identified, organized, and interpreted by the brain.
Visual Motor Coordination
Vision coordinated with movements of the body.
Identifies the individual's strengths, skills, interests, abilities and rehabilitation needs. Accomplished through on-site situational assessments at local businesses and in community settings.
Preparing any person with a disability for useful and purposeful employment through on-the-job training and use of rehabilitative equipment.
Deliberate movement. Performing on purpose.
Policy manual for Medicaid Services.
Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale.
WAN (computer term)
Wide Area Network. A computer network that spans a relatively large geographical area. Computers connected to a wide-area network are connected through telephone lines or radio waves.
Work Experience and Study program. Vocational education for students ages 18-21. In this program, students concentrate on developing and refining home living and job skills.
Women, Infants and Children. A nutrition program for low income women that is run through the Department of Health.
Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children.
Wide Range Achievement Test.
Wheat Ridge Regional Center.
This term used in a disability context usually refers to the federal government’s Medicaid program. In a practical sense ICF/MR (institutional) programs are viewed as services to which people with developmental disabilities are entitled. The government’s Health Care Finance Authority (HCFA) can grant exceptions or waivers to states that have consumers who would rather have community non-institutional services. An individual must sign a form acknowledging they are foregoing the option of institutional services.
Supporting one’s own weight in any position.
Moving weight from one side of the body to the other. For example, when standing, shifting weight from one foot to the other.
Legal document by which a person directs to whom his or her property will pass at death.
Workstation (computer term)
A personal computer, typically linked with others to form a LAN (local-area network), although they can also be used as stand-alone systems.